Panax ginsenosides

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Main Active Compounds:

 

  1. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1

 

 

Systematic Review:

P. notoginseng plays a role in improving the local blood supply, stimulating circulation to end stasis, it possesses the effect of dilation of cerebral blood vessels, changes hemorheological characteristic,prevents thrombosis and promotes fibrinolysis (1). 

 

Clinical Trials:

"RG could be an attractive herbal dietary supplement for relieving menopausal symptoms and conferring favorable effects on markers of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women." (136).

 

"Three (3) months' treatment with Korean Red Ginseng did not improve arterial stiffness in subjects with hypertension." (137).

 

Peer Review:

Ginsenosides can inhibit ROS production, stimulate NO production, increase blood circulation, ameliorate vasomotor tone, and adjust lipid profi le. Additionally, many studies indicate that ginsenosides have a multitude of activities in both physiological and/or pathologic conditions concerning with CVD. 

 

Experimental Research:

Ginsenosides prevent free radicals from damaging cardiac muscle cells

 

2 main active ginsenosides: protopanaxdiol Rb1 and protopanaxatriol Rg1.

 

Rb1 and Rg1 protect heart muscle by regulation of cAMP/cGMP values. One of the factors that leads to remediation of cardiac arrhythmia.

 

Taking excess calcium will cause blood vessels to tense up and contract and increase blood pressure, and thus increase the chance of a heart attack. There are calcium channel blockers drugs one can take (CCBs) which relax blood vessels and decrease blood pressure (8). Rg1 selectively counters blood vessel constriction caused by calcium ions, it is a natural calcium channel blocker. 

 

Calcium Channel Blockers and Nitrates (for NO production) help prevent angina and high blood pressure. (138). 

 

Rb1 and Rg1 increased vessel dialation that is endothelial cell dependent by activating nitric oxide and also regulates L-arginine and the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in the endothelium cells.

 

 

 

 

Peer Review References by 

 

Kim. J. H.  Cardiovascular Diseases and Panax ginseng: A Review on Molecular Mechanisms and Medical Applications. JGR Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 36, No.1, 2012,  pp 16-26,  http://dx.doi.org/10.5142/jgr.2012.36.1.16 (References 1-128). 

 

 

 

 

 

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Xie JT, Shao ZH, Vanden Hoek TL, Chang WT, Li J,Mehendale S, Wang CZ, Hsu CW, Becker LB, Yin JJ etal. Antioxidant effects of ginsenoside Re in cardiomyocytes.Eur J Pharmacol 2006;532:201-207.125. Deng HL, Zhang JT. Anti-lipid peroxilative effect of ginsenosideRb1 and Rg1. Chin Med J (Engl) 1991;104:395-398.126. Lim JH, Wen TC, Matsuda S, Tanaka J, Maeda N, PengH, Aburaya J, Ishihara K, Sakanaka M. Protection of ischemichippocampal neurons by ginsenoside Rb1, a mainingredient of ginseng root. Neurosci Res 1997;28:191-200.127. Tian J, Fu F, Geng M, Jiang Y, Yang J, Jiang W, Wang C,Liu K. Neuroprotective effect of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3on cerebral ischemia in rats. Neurosci Lett 2005;374:92-97.128. Lu JM, Yao Q, Chen C. Ginseng compounds: an updateon their molecular mechanisms and medical applications.Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2009;7:293-302.

External research may be publically accessed through academic databases:

Pubmed, Medlink, Academic Search Premier, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, etc.

 

The following investigations had drug development and possible clinical use of Panax ginseng in mind. Elipulse(R) is a natural health product supplement that does not aim to treat or cure diseases, but rather utilize the limited, beneficial effects of Panax ginsenosides to benefit its users in a meaningful, productive way. 

 

These statements has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. However, these very recent findings may explain the pharmacological mechanisms behind Panax ginseng. This collection of findings do not represent all findings currently available at this time but only a small portion.

References (nonformatted)

 

129. Mingfei Zeng, Linmei Pan, Shunmei Qi, Yuntai Cao, Huaxu Zhu, Liwei Guo, Jing Zhou, Systematic review of recent advances in pharmacokinetics of four classical Chinese medicines used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease, Fitoterapia, Volume 88, July 2013, Pages 50-75, ISSN 0367-326X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2013.04.006. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367326X13001044) Keywords: ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion); Cerebrovascular disease; Chinese medicine; Pharmacokinetics; Bioavailability; Drug interaction

 

130. Zheng M, Qu L, Lou Y. Effects of icariin combined with Panaxnotoginseng saponins on ischemia reperfusion-induced cognitive impairments related with oxidative stress and CA1 of hippocampalneurons in rat. Phytother Res 2008;22:597–604.

 

131. Chuang CM, Hsieh CL, Lin HY. Panax notoginseng Burk attenuates impairment of learning and memory functions and increases ED1,BDNF and beta-secretase immunoreactive cells in chronic stageischemia–reperfusion injured rats. Am J Chin Med 2008;36:685–93.

 

132. Li H, Deng CQ, Chen BY, Zhang SP, Liang Y, Luo XG. Total saponins of Panax notoginseng modulate the expression of caspases and attenuateapoptosis in rats following focal cerebral ischemia–reperfusion.J Ethnopharmacol 2009;121:412–8.

 

133.  Son HY, Han HS, Jung HW, Park YK. Panax notoginseng attenuates the infarct volume in rat ischemic brain and the inflammatory response ofmicroglia. J Pharmacol Sci 2009;109:368–79.

 

134. Lau AJ, Toh DF, Chua TK, Pang YK, Woo SO, Koh HL. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects of Panax notoginseng: comparison of raw and steamed Panax notoginseng with Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Sep 25;125(3):380-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.07.038. Epub 2009 Aug 7. PubMed PMID: 19665534.

 

135. Zheng M., Qu L., Lou. Effects of icariin combined with Panax notoginseng saponins on ischemia reperfusion-induced cognitive impairments related with oxidative stress and CA1 of hippocampal neurons in rat . Phytotherapy Research. (2008). 22 (5) , pp. 597-604.

 

136. Kim SY, Seo SK, Choi YM, Jeon YE, Lim KJ, Cho S, Choi YS, Lee BS. Effects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2012 Apr;19(4):461-6. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3182325e4b. PubMed PMID: 22027944.

 

137. Rhee MY, Kim YS, Bae JH, Nah DY, Kim YK, Lee MM, Kim HY. Effect of Korean red ginseng on arterial stiffness in subjects with hypertension. J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Jan;17(1):45-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2010.0065. Epub 2011 Jan 16. PubMed PMID: 21235416.

 

138. "Coronary artery bypass graft - Alternatives ." Coronary artery bypass graft. National Health Service UK, n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. <http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coronary-artery-bypass/Pages/Alternatives.aspx>.

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