"The consumption of cinnamon is associated with a statistically significant decrease in levels of fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels, and an increase in HDL-C levels; however, no significant effect on hemoglobin A1c was found. The high degree of heterogeneity may limit the ability to apply these results to patient care, because the preferred dose and duration of therapy are unclear." (6).
Isolation of Cinnamomum cassia barks compounds showed attenuation of nephropathy through the "inhibition of secretion of IL-6, collagen IV, and fibronectin against high-glucose induced mesangial cells .." (5). Which may have benefits in reducing diabetic nephropathy (DN).
"Intake of 2g of cinnamon for 12 weeks significantly reduces the HbA1c, SBP and DBP among poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients. Cinnamon supplementation could be considered as an additional dietary supplement option to regulate blood glucose and blood pressure levels along with conventional medications to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus." (7).
Main Active Compounds:
Cinnamaldehyde: Affects Ca2+ and calcium channels blocker effects, prevents hypertension development resulting from insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Also has an active effect in exaggerating insulin production (insulinotropic effect) (3).
Cinnamaldehyde: Interferes with calcium ion release and influx, dilation of vascular smooth muscle and is endothelium independent. Studies show that cinnamaldehyde together with Eugenol, 2 extracted substances can improve insulin action in the brain and improve locomotion and brain activity in animal tests. Also it "mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis." (1).
Since insulin deficiency was associated with elevated blood pressure, increased response to phenylephrine, KCl, ACh, impaired NO generation and Calcium ion influx. Insulin resistance was associated with elevated blood pressure. Cinnamaaldehyde was shone to normalized response to KCl and PE. Ca2+ did not affect NO generation but increased Ca2+ influx. Conclusive results: “Ca prevents development of hypertension in insulin deficiency and resistence through a normalization of vascular contractiklity in addition to its insulinotrpic effect in insulin deficiency.” (3).
Results of cinnamomum tamal's cinnamaldehyde were that it showed "significant antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic activity. (4).
Eugenol and coniferaldehyde, exhibit relatively strong active anti-platlet properties
Coumarin: anticoagulation (prevents blood clots), a precursor to warfarin (a strong anticoagulant) with aspirin for coronary angioplasty. Hepatotoxicity has been reported, similar to the rare side-effects effects of warfarin.
Cinnamic acid, a relatively strong antioxidant,
1. Sartorius, T., Peter, A., Schulz, N., Drescher, A., Bergheim, I., Machann, J., & ... Hennige, A. M. (2014). Cinnamon Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity in the Brain and Lowers Liver Fat in Mouse Models of Obesity. Plos ONE, 9(3), 1-12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092358
2. Koivisto, A., Hukkanen, M., Saarnilehto, M., Chapman, H., Kuokkanen, K., Wei, H., & ... Pertovaara, A. (2012). Inhibiting TRPA1 ion channel reduces loss of cutaneous nerve fiber function in diabetic animals: Sustained activation of the TRPA1 channel contributes to the pathogenesis of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological Research, 65(1), 149-158. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2011.10.006
3. El-Bassossy, H. M., Fahmy, A., & Badawy, D. (2011). Cinnamaldehyde protects from the hypertension associated with diabetes. Food & Chemical Toxicology, 49(11), 3007-3012. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.07.060
4. Kumar, S., Vasudeva, N., & Sharma, S. (2012). GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 11(1), 95-105. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-95
5. Qi, L., Shu-Mei, W., Qing, L., Jie, L., & Yong-Xian, C. (2013). Identification of Compounds from the Water Soluble Extract of Cinnamomum cassia Barks and Their Inhibitory Effects against High-Glucose-Induced Mesangial Cells. Molecules, 18(9), 10930-10943. doi:10.3390/molecules180910930
6. Robert W. Allen, Emmanuelle Schwartzman, William L. Baker,Craig I. Coleman, and Olivia J. PhungCinnamon Use in Type 2 Diabetes: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisAnn Fam Med September/October 2013 11:452-459;doi:10.1370/afm.1517
7. Akilen R, Tsiami A, Devendra D, Robinson N. Glycated haemoglobin and blood pressure-lowering effect of cinnamon in multi-ethnic Type 2 diabetic patients in the UK: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Diabet Med. 2010 Oct;27(10):1159-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03079.x. PubMed PMID: 20854384.
8. Rao PV, Gan SH. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:642942. Epub 2014 Apr 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 24817901; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4003790.
External research may be publically accessed through academic databases:
Pubmed, Medlink, Academic Search Premier, US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, etc.
The following investigations had drug development and possible clinical use of Cinnamomum aromaticum in mind. Elipulse(R) is a natural health product supplement that does not aim to treat or cure diseases, but rather utilize the limited, beneficial effects of Cinnamomum aromaticum to benefit its users in a meaningful, productive way.
These statements has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. However, these very recent findings may explain the pharmacological mechanisms behind Cinnamomum aromaticum. This collection of findings do not represent all findings currently available at this time.